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Traun

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Non sufficit orbis

   
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: 862
Re:
« #165 : 09/14/09 16:03:54 »
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on 09/08/09 12:08:12, Antrekot wrote:

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, . , . 1571:
 
1. First, the practices of the enemies will be daily more and more discovered.
2. There will be credit gotten here for a good sum of money.
3. Thirdly, the same money, as the time shall bring forth cause, shall be employed to their own detriment: and what ships there shall be appointed (as they shall suppose to serve their turn), may do some notable exploit, to their great damage.

 
(Juan E. Tazon "The Life and Times of Thomas Stukeley", . 148)  
 
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on 09/08/09 12:08:12, Antrekot wrote:

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To Alba this was sheer folly. A few weeks before he was so clear with the King as to even sound offensive. All this, he claimed, had been arranged by de Spes and Ridolfi, and it made no sense. The former was a 'very good gentleman, capable of sacrificing of hundred lives in the name of the King', but he did not understand the business. He worked following the 'trail left by spies', and his ardour had been the cause of 'his emnity with the Queen's Privy Council'. He was so blind with hatred that his only wish was to see them all 'burnt up', an opinion in which he might be right, but in which he should also 'be ruled by reason'. As to the latter, Alva's opinion could not be more distasteful:
 
"I have read the discourse that Ridolfi wrote on what can be done in England. When the writer has nobody to oppose his views, it is very easy to conclude that only victory is possible. It is as if judge passed sentence having listened to the arguments of only one side. A man like him, who has never been a soldier and has never been through a war, thinks that armies can be levied in the air, moven from place to place up one's sleeve, and made to fight as fantasy shows. He says that an army can be taken into the country to capture the Queen, another one to free the Queen of Scots, while at the same time the Tower of London is stormed and the galleons burnt in the river. And I think that even if Your Magesty and the Queen of England agreed to work together the achievement of the same would be impossible."
 
The veteran would only beleive it when he saw it happen. In his opinion nothing should be risked unless it was based on facts and not on written words.

 
(Juan E. Tazon "The Life and Times of Thomas Stukeley", . 154)  
 
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on 09/08/09 12:08:12, Antrekot wrote:

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Ten thousand men, including horsemen, were supposed to land at Harwich. But Harwich was not a port in the duke's territory. Furthermore, 'I am of not so little skill that I would have three or four thousand horsemen land in Essex, the unfittest place for horsemen to land in all England, a country best inhabited of noblemen, gentlemen, and other ability to resist them. And who would land horsemen in Essex, a country as full of lanes, woods, ditches and marshes?'
 
(Francis Edwards "Plots and Plotters in the Reign of Elizabeth I", . 37)
 
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on 09/08/09 12:08:12, Antrekot wrote:

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30 1571:
 
"We have always been in some suspicion, for both [Hawkins and Fitzwilliams] had conferred with Secretary Cecil, but we listened to their proposal on the grounds of the great benefit that can be obtained if Hawkins's ships can be put to use."
 
(Juan E. Tazon "The Life and Times of Thomas Stukeley", . 155)  
 
- , . 10 1571 .  
 
 
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« : 09/14/09 16:38:55 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Antrekot
Bori-tarkhan

*****


C

   
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: 16204
Re:
« #166 : 09/14/09 17:19:14 »
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Traun

*****


Non sufficit orbis

   
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: 862
Re:
« #167 : 09/15/09 03:47:22 »
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, , . :
 
http://www.archive.org/details/voyagestravelsma01beazuoft
 
Voyages and travels mainly during the 16th and 17th centuries, Vol. 1
 
 
 

 

 

 

 
« : 09/15/09 04:29:48 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Traun

*****


Non sufficit orbis

   
»

: 862
Re:
« #168 : 09/15/09 04:13:31 »
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on 09/14/09 17:19:14, Antrekot wrote:

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on 09/14/09 17:19:14, Antrekot wrote:

- To Alba this was sheer folly - .
 

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on 09/14/09 17:19:14, Antrekot wrote:

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on 09/14/09 17:19:14, Antrekot wrote:

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on 09/14/09 17:19:14, Antrekot wrote:

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« : 09/15/09 04:48:58 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Antrekot
Bori-tarkhan

*****


C

   
»

: 16204
Re:
« #169 : 09/15/09 13:34:04 »
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Traun

*****


Non sufficit orbis

   
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: 862
Re:
« #170 : 09/17/09 22:00:41 »
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on 09/15/09 13:34:04, Antrekot wrote:

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, , . , , , - . , , , , : " ... ...".  
 
, :
 
 
20 June 1571
 
Roberto Ridolfi has not arrived here, and if the particulars of his errand have got wind it is greatly to be feared that it will be the death blow for the queen of Scotland and the duke of Norfolk, as it may be considered certain that, if she of England learns of it, she will make it au excuse to wreak her ill-feeling on them, and with ample cause. We are still not without suspicion that the whole thing may have been an invention of hers, with this very object. You will be as vigilant as possible in this business, proceeding with all due caution and a close understanding with the duke of Alba.  
 
 
13 July 1571
 
It is most necessary, especially now, that you should continue to report by every possible way the progress of the pirates, their designs, and the understandings they have in France, England, and the Netherlands; how Hawkins is behaving, what he is doing, where he is, how many ships he has, their quality and burden, and whether he has spoken to you in a way which proves that he will serve me loyally if he is welcomed and favoured. Roberto Ridolfi arrived here and gave me your letter of the 25th March, and those of the queen of Scotland, the duke of Norfolk, and a brief from his Holiness, exhorting me to embrace the business with which he is entrusted. As I most sincerely desire the success of this, not for my own interests or for any other wordly object, but purely and simply for the service of God, the welfare of religion and the happiness of the queen of Scotland and the Catholic party, I am discussing the matter with the hope of doing what is fitting and possible with all goodwill, and I will resolve very shortly. You may convey this information cautiously to the Catholic party, urging them to remain firm and in good hope, enjoining them strictly to secrecy. It may be that when they learn this and finding themselves so oppressed and ill-treated in England, with indignation and thirst for vengeance, they may want to break out prematurely, and take up arms before the time, but you must warn them that on no account must they make any movement until things are duly matured and arranged, as otherwise they will run the same risk as the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland did, and the business itself will be ruined for ever, and the queen of Scotland immediately sacrificed, as well as all the rest of them that can be captured. I have therefore sent this special courier to the duke of Alba who will forward you this letter. The Duke will instruct you on other points, and you will proceed in conformity with his orders with great cure, dexterity and all the vigilance which so great a business demands.
 
 
5 August 1571
 
By my letter of tho 14th July you will have learned what had occurred up to that date respecting the errand of Roberto Ridolfi. Since then, I have fully discussed all the details which presented themselves, with the care and consideration demanded by the importance of the matter. In the result, after carrying the whole question before Almighty God, whose cause it is and in whom we confide for the guidance and direction of this affair better than human prudence can attain or understand, since all the object is directed purely and simply to His glory and service and the advantage of His holy Catholic faith, I have resolved to adopt the course which you will learn from the Duke of Alba, to whom I write respecting it at great length. In conformity therewith and the orders that he may give you, you will proceed in the business with the discretion, dexterity, mildness, and cleverness which we expect of you, keeping in close communication with the Duke, and carrying out minutely all he may order, this being my will.
 
..........
 
Fitzwilliams has arrived here with the reply to the Articles of Agreement which he had taken to John Hawkins. We are discussing the reply with him in order to satisfy ourselves as to whether there is anything in it or not. If there be, and Hawkins behaves straightforwardly, there is no doubt that he would be of great service, but many confirmatory proofs are needful before we can be convinced of this. You shall be informed of the decision, arrived at in due time, and, in the meanwhile, if Hawkins speaks to to you, you may tell him only that you have heard of the arrival of Fitzwilliams here.
 
 
30 August 1571
 
Your letters of 12th, 14th, 19th, and 24th July received, and we are glad to hear what you say about the business which Roberto Ridolfi proposed to us, to the effect that it has been dealt with sincerely and straightforwardly, so that no suspicion need be entertained. Under this impression, and because I see that it is so well justified and so entirely directed to the service of God and the advantage of our holy and true religion, and the rescue of a princess so catholic as we consider the queen of Scotland to be, we desire anxiously that the muttvr may be so conducted as to successfully attain the end in view. We have therefore written, and are now again writing, to the duke of Alba directing him to take such steps and precautions as may be necessary to carry through the business effectually, and to instruct you what you are to do on your side with the same object. We order you. as we have done before, not to exceed in anything the instructions the Duke may give you, as it is necessary that in all things you should act in absolute co-operation, and with the attention, care, and diligence which the greatness of the issue demands.
 
Notwithstanding what you say of the proposals made by John Hawkins through George Fitzwilliams, yet there is some suspicion about it, because both of them have communicated with Secretary Cecil. We agreed that the affair should be listened to, because we knew that Hawkins with his ships might be of great service in the principal business, if he acted straightforwardly, and this was the reason that Fitzwilliams was treated with, and the conditions and terms set forth, as you will see in the cipher copy enclosed of the deed made between him and the duke of Feria, confirmed subsequently by my order, which the duke will send you with a full relation of the whole affair. He will also tell you the time and method in which you will move in both matters, and you will act as he orders, this being the course desirable for the end in view.
 
 
14 September 1571
 
You did well in giving us full reports, and particularly as regards the good heart and firmness with which the duke of Norfolk and the queen of Scotland's friends continue. Nevertheless we approve of your not having given them Ridolfi's letters, or telling them that you had them, such being the duke of Alba's orders. This course was the best for my service and the successful conduct of the business, all details being left to the Duke for him to arrange with the zeal, devotion, and prudence which we are sure will enable him to carry it to a good issue. We again repeat that you will most precisely and punctually act in accordance with his orders, without exceeding them in the slightest degree.  
 
The duke of Alba will inform you of the death of the duke of Feria, and of what you have to say to John Hawkins in order to assure him that the arrangement agreed upon with him shall bo fulfilled without default or failing if he complies with his promises, which we hope he will, and shows in action the samo goodwill with which you credit him. We are glad to hear your opinion of him, and you will tell him so to encourage him, but you must proceed with him in the manner and form prescribed by the Duke, whose instructions you must not overstep.
 
 
31 Oktober 1571
 
On the 5th instant your letters of the 9th and 10th ultimo were received, reporting the imprisonment of the duke of Norfolk, which grieved us greatly, both because of his own danger and the evil which may result therefrom to the queen of Scotland, and also because it frustrates a matter of so much importance for the service of God and the advantage of religion as that which was being forwarded through him. The thread of the business thus being cut, there is no more to say to you about it, excepting to refer you to the duke of Alba for instructions. We are anxious for a newer letter from you to learn what has happened since, as we trust in our Lord, whose cause it is, to once more put it in such a position that I may help it forward in his service.  
 
There ia nothing more to be said about Hawkins, as that affair, too, depended upon the principal business. You will proceed with him as the Duke may instruct you.
 
 
 
(c) Calendar of Letters and State Papers Belating to English Affairs, Preserved Principally in the Archives of Simancas. Vol II. Elizabeth. 1568-1579.
 
 
on 09/15/09 13:34:04, Antrekot wrote:

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on 09/15/09 13:34:04, Antrekot wrote:

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« : 09/18/09 02:31:30 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Traun

*****


Non sufficit orbis

   
»

: 862
Re:
« #171 : 09/17/09 23:12:58 »
»

on 09/08/09 08:40:52, Antrekot wrote:

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on 09/08/09 08:40:52, Antrekot wrote:

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. , . 1584 , , , . 1585, .
 
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The contacts between Queen Elisabeth and the Dutch rebels made up a long and sorry story of wows of support solemnly made and casually broken, of assistance promised but never sent, of encouragement offered and then disowned.
 
, 1584, 1585 .  
 
on 09/08/09 08:40:52, Antrekot wrote:

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, "" , , , 1580-1585.
 
, , 1585 :
 
 
22 February
 
The Queen has knighted Raleigh her favourite, and has given him a ship of her own, of 180 tons burden with five pieces of artillery on each side, and two half-culverins in the bows. Raleigh had also bought two Dutch fly-boats of 120 tons to carry stores, and two other boats of 40 tons ; in addition to which he was having built four pinnaces of 20 to 30 tons, so that, altogether, Raleigh would fit out no fewer than 16 vessels, in which he intended to carry 400 men. The Queen has assured him that if he do not sail himself she will defray all the costs of the preparations, and she has given the same assurance to Drake, and had granted a patent for the voyage, the conditions being that she was to find 20,000l. for the fitting out of the ships, 24 large vessels and 20 pinnaces, which were being made ready in London and the west-country and elsewhere, but more slowly than Raleigh's fleet, which will be ready to sail at the beginning of next month for Norembega ; and Drake would ship 2,000 men with the intention of encountering your Majesty's fleets before they could meet at Havana. If he do not succeed in this he will land at Nombre de Dios, and is confident of making the voyage from England in 40 days. If the king of France takes the Flemish rebels under his protection it is also thought that some of the English merchant ships now being fitted out for Newfoundland might be taken directly to meat your Majesty's fleets, wherever they might find them. The Queen had likewise ordered her ships which were without masts to be made ready.
 
------------------------
Hakluyt writes to Walsingham from Paris, 7th April : "The rumour of Sir Walter Rawley's fleet, and especially the preparation of Sir Francis Drake, doth so much vex the Spaniard and his factors, as nothing can be more, and therefore he could wish that although Sir Francis Drake's journey be stayed, yet the rumour of his setting forth might be continued,"- Colonial Calendar.
 
 
4 May
 
The delegates from the Netherlands went over to England, and were immediately dispatched after an interview with the carl of Leicester, who told them when they had made their speech to him, that they must not take it amiss if he did not enter so warmly into their affair as formerly, as it was a matter for much consideration. Parliament had closed after having voted supplies estimated at 150,000l. sterling. Amongst other things they declared it high treason to acknowledge the queen of Scotland as heiress to the English Crown; and subjected to the penalty of confiscation of goods those who harboured seminary priests for a first offence, and to that of high treason for a second.  
 
The Queen had ordered the fitting out of one of her ships called the "Red Lion" of 800 tons, the earl of Leicester's galleon, another called the "Primrose," and two other vessels, the statement being that Drake was going to take them out to meet your Majesty's Indian flotilla. Rumours were also current that the Queen had ordered the raising of some infantry, but it was not known whether the intention was to send them to Holland or to help the Prince of Bearn. A servant of Don Antonio had arrived in England to inform the Queen that his master would be glad to come to England on account of the disturbances here.
 
 
1 June
 
Of the 10,000 men the Queen had ordered to be raised there had been mustered in London 2,000 pikemen, 1,600 harquebussiers, and 400 halberdiers ; and a number of Englishmen had shipped over clandestinely to reinforce the fleet in Zeeland, which was about to attempt the blockade of Antwerp. With this object foreigners had been paid four or five pounds sterling each. Although it was said that the levy had been made by the Queen in consequence of a promise to the king of France that she would fulfil her treaty obligations to help him with 10,000 men against the forces of Cardinal Bourbon and the Guises, she has really secretly sent officers to Rochelle and to the prince of Bearn, offering help and succour.
 
 
16 July
 
The delegates from the Dutch rebels were already on the way back with their answer, which was to the effect that the Queen would help them with 10,000 men and would send Lord Grey as Governor. She told them that, even if France would not aid them, she would do so, and in such a way as would prevent your Majesty from ever subduing them, and that henceforward she would do so undisgtiisedly. Four thousand of these men were nearly ready to leave under Colonel Norris, and would go across at the same time as tlie delegates. It was sail in London that the reason for sending them so hastily, was in order that they should arrive in time to succour Antwerp, and although the rumour is current here that they have arrived at Bergen-op-Zoom, I do not credit it. I also hear that Drake has sailed from the west country with some ships of the fleet to meet the Indian flotillas belonging to your Majesty. All advices concur in the fact of his sailing, but they differ in the number of his ships some say 30, whilst the smallest number mentioned is 12 two of which belong to the Queen. The latter account is the most probable, but I cannot obtain positive information in consequence of the loss of Pedro de Zubiaur. The Queen, not satisfied with arresting the principal Catholics, has disarmed the whole of them throughout the country, and no one now dares to write, so that until this fury passes away I have to do my best to discover what the French ambassador writes hither, in order to send information to your Majesty.  
 
The earl of' Northumberland, who was a prisoner in the Tower, has killed himself, according to the account written by Secretary Walsingham, who says that he asked his guard for a pistol loaded with three bullets. This is very hard to believe, for those who know how strictly prisoners are kept there, and that the guards are not allowed even to give them their food without the intervention of the constable, especially in the case of so important a person as the Earl, to whom they certainly would not have dared to give arms. It is therefore concluded, from the fact that he was found with three bullet wounds, that the thing has been managed by the councillors, and it is to be feared that they may do the same thing to the earl of Arundel and other Catholic prisoners, who are now very numerous, having regard to their discovery six months ago that poison had been given to the earl of Shrewsbury, and, as I am told, to this earl of Northumberland as well. The poison, however, was so slow in its action that the Catholic physician Harchilo (Harpsfield), who is now in prison, was able to cure them and told them both that their malady was poison. The earl of Northumberland had three sons here being brought up in a Christian way.  
 
 
( )
 
 
- , , 1585 . ?
 
 
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« : 09/18/09 00:08:50 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Traun

*****


Non sufficit orbis

   
»

: 862
Re:
« #172 : 09/18/09 00:20:25 »
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on 09/08/09 11:28:23, Antrekot wrote:

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Grin
 
on 09/08/09 11:28:23, Antrekot wrote:

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Wink
 
 
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« : 09/18/09 00:26:59 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Antrekot
Bori-tarkhan

*****


C

   
»

: 16204
Re:
« #173 : 09/18/09 07:21:35 »
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, . , . (c) R2R
Traun

*****


Non sufficit orbis

   
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: 862
Re:
« #174 : 09/20/09 16:25:36 »
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on 09/08/09 07:53:45, Antrekot wrote:

4. . __ 5/6 ... .
 

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24 May 1572. Antonio de Guaras to the Duke of Alba
 
An Englishman named Captain Morgan has enlisted three hundred English soldiers (although without drum and standard), and is ready to leave with them, the citizens of London guaranteeing them their pay, which the Flemish rebels here have undertaken to provide. It is said that many more Englishmen will go, and all this is done so publicly, that one is bound to believe, that the Queen and Council willingly shut their eyes to it. No doubt great aid will be sent from here daily. God grant, at least, that such aid may not be publicly declared by the State.
 
 
9 Nov. 1572. Antonio de Guaras to the Duke of Alba
 
The English general who was before Tregus, named Sir Humphrey Gilbert, has arrived at this Court, and it is said he had five hundred of his soldiers dead and sick. Captain Morgan remained at Flushing with about two hundred Englishmen, whom he has had there always, and some three or four English captains belonging to Gilbert's party have remained behind with Morgan. Of the English who were at Brille none have returned.
 
 
18 Nov. 1572. Antonio de Guaras to the Duke of Alba
 
This greatly alarms them, for fear his Majesty may not be willing to be friendly with them, which certainly would not be extraordinary, seeing their continued proofs of enmity towards him, especially with their armed Englishmen in Flanders. There is no news that Captain Morgan and his soldiers at Flushing are coming back, nor those with M. de Lumay at Brille, but, if this and all that has passed lie overlooked by his Majesty, these people will be only too glad to be friends, and will open their ports willingly.
 
 
9 June 1573. Letter of Intelligence from London to the Dure of Alba
 
Captain Morgan and others have 1,500 soldiers ready, and will at once leave for Holland with great quantities of stores.  
 
 
April 1574. "Substance of Guaras' Letters"
 
Bingham will try to gain over Walter Morgan who has already been paid 1,000 crowns to take 500 soldiers to Holland or Zealand, and it is believed that he will sail with them in six weeks.
 
 
11 Feb. 1576. Antonio de Guaras to (Zayas ?)
 
The two ships and smaller vessels, with Orange's envoys have not sailed yet, in consequence of contrary weather. In addition to the troops and stores they had on board, a hundred pairs of pikes from the Tower were put on board of them last night, as well as four great guns of cust-iron, and some more cannon balls, as I am informed by a person who was present. Aldegonde and his companions remain here in pursuit of their object, and it is evident that they will present their petition to Parliament. It is generally discredited that the Queen will send any of her forces to the States, although her own declaration and those of Burleigh and other zealots must surely be believed, and I cannot but think that they will do so. Although matters here are constantly changing, there is no doubt that forces will be openly sent to the number of five or six thousand soldiers to help Orange against his Majesty; although, to justify themselves, a suspension of hostilities may be requested, and an excuse made that the Queen has taken this course to prevent the French, the Scotch, or the Danes from intervening, and in protection of her privileges, the desire being that his Majesty's Spanish forces should leave the country, and these and similar absurdities being mere subterfuges to attain their end. It is said that a personage will go to the King from here to assure him that the Queen has been moved to act as she has done in the interests of his Majesty's patrimonial dominion and the good of the crown of England, but it is all for the purpose of wasting time in deceit and artful trickery. The merchants here have furnished Orange's envoys with two thousand five hundred crowns, for which they have received assignments payable in Flushing in money or merchandise, guaranteed by the rebel Flemings residing here. I have just heard from a friend that Colonel Chester and Captain Morgan have been instructed to raised two thousand soldiers, and the whole business is now so shamefully open that no doubt the Queen will shortly send her own forces, under the pretence of succouring Zieriezee, and driving away his Majesty's troops. More will he discovered every day, and I will carefully report what I hear.
 
 
22 April 1578. Bernardino de Mendoza to the King
 
The troops raised by the said Sir Harry Cavendish, with Captains George York and Thomas Morgan, are to slip over to Flanders quietly, pretending that they are not sent or paid by the Queen but by Cavendish, who is a rich young man, but is not a soldier and knows nothing of war. He lias bought great quantities of arms which have been packed up like bales of merchandise, and a thousand pounds sterling worth of powder, most of the men being shipped in Gravesend and lower down the river, attracted by the money paid to them. They are told that they are to be lodged at Bruges, Malines, and Antwerp, five hundred in each place.
 
 
, , , 800 , , , .
 
, 1585-1687, 1588.
 
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Wink
 
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« : 09/20/09 16:49:23 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Antrekot
Bori-tarkhan

*****


C

   
»

: 16204
Re:
« #175 : 09/20/09 17:05:05 »
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, " " - . Smiley
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- , .  Smiley   , ? Smiley
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, . , . (c) R2R
Traun

*****


Non sufficit orbis

   
»

: 862
Re:
« #176 : 09/20/09 17:45:53 »
»

on 09/20/09 17:05:05, Antrekot wrote:

, " " - . Smiley
 

, .
 
In the sixteenth century the Crown possessed no navy in the present understanding of that term, no ships of its own expressly designed for war and for the other services to which a modern navy lends itself. Under the early Hapsburgs, all vessels were more or less suited to all requirements of war and trade. All carried some armament as a precaution against the insecurities of the sea, all were fit for fighting. The distinguishing feature of men-of-war lay in the soldiers and additional artillery with which they were supplied. The policy of encouraging shipbuilding by offering bounties for vessels over a certain tonnage, besides helping commerce, largely obviated in those days the maintenance of a royal marine; for upon these vessels the government had the first claim in time of need. The Spanish kings, when they undertook a maritime enterprise, embargoed and hired such merchant ships as they immediately required. Or, if there was call for a permanent service of some sort, this too was adjusted by means of a contract with private individuals to arm and maintain the ships for a fixed sum; or the king paid so much per ton for the hire alone of the ships, which sailed under command of their owners, but were armed and manned at the charge of the royal exchequer. Under such a system, nobles, landowners, and even bishops used their capital in the constructing and arming of vessels, whether for service in Europe or for the armada de la carrera de las Indias.
 
() Haring, Clarence Henry, "Trade and navigation between Spain and the Indies in the time of the Hapsburgs" . 269
 
http://www.archive.org/details/tradenavigationb00hariuoft
 
on 09/20/09 17:05:05, Antrekot wrote:

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« : 09/20/09 18:04:51 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Antrekot
Bori-tarkhan

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C

   
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: 16204
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« #177 : 09/20/09 18:03:24 »
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Non sufficit orbis

   
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« #178 : 09/20/09 19:29:14 »
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on 09/20/09 18:03:24, Antrekot wrote:

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There is in the British Museum a highly interesting series of original papers (Add., MSS. 28,420), dated in the autumn of this year, giving minute particulars of the aid sent by Philip to this enterprise. The first document is a long letter from the Papal Nuncio in Madrid to the King, written on the 5th September, giving an account of the landing and progress of James Fitzmaurice in Ireland, and the alarm caused thereby to the Queen of England. He begs Philip to send further succour to Ireland, and, in a subsequent paper, sets forth the promises made by Fitzmaurice, in the event of his being successful, although, as he says, Philip had not thought proper that these promises should be embodied in a formal document. This second document is copiously annotated in the margin in latin, apparently in the handwriting of Cardinal de Granvelle, the notes in several cases being extremely sarcastic and characteristic of the writer. Another communication from the Nuncio (bishop of Piacenza) states the amount of succour which he wishes Philip to give, including a levy of 600 infantry, and 60 Italian veterans; and on the 8th November, the King's decision is given, in the form of a memorandum to the Nuncio, detailing the aid to be sent. As this document is extremely interesting and has, I believe, never yet been published, I transcribe it in full.  
 
B.M. Spanish, Add. 28,420.
 
Document headed, "That which his Majesty has ordered to be furnished of the succour requested by the Pope's Nuncio for Ireland, in conformity witli his memorial, namely."
 
The Nuncio is to appoint an ecclesiastic to go to Biscay to see after this provision, and Juan Martinez de Recalde, who serves his Majesty on that coast, is to be written to in the King's name, ordering him to help the expedition, a similar order being also sent to the officers of justice in the province, authorising them to raise 400 men, but without drum beat or standard.  
 
Besids the 100 pikes already ordered for the expedition 100 more are to be sent - 200 pikes in all.  
 
Besides the 100 harquebusses already ordered 30 more are to be sent - 130 harquebusses, or muskets, in all.  
 
Besides the 200 swords ordered another 100 are to be given - 300 swords in all.  
 
Instead of 25 or 30 barrels of powder as ordered, 30 full barrels are to be given, and some saltpetre, sulphur, and "artificial fire."  
 
The warrant for 200 quintals of Gallician biscuit is to be returned, and another will be given for 400 quintals, on the Biscay coast.  
 
In addition to the biscuit a proportionate quantity of wine and other victuals will be given on his Majesty's account.  
 
Besides the 5 pieces of iron ordnance already given from Santander 5 more similar pieces are to be provided, as well as some necessary appurtenances.  
 
Two ships may be taken from the coast of Biscay, and his Majesty will pay the wages of the crews, and the cost of the ships for four months. The ships to be of 300 tons each.  
 
All the persons who are to undertake the raising and conveying the troops are to be Italians, appointed by the Nuncio, and a list of the persons now in Madrid available for this is now enclosed. (A list of three Italian captains is attached.)  
 
As regards the 50,000 ducats requested, although his Holiness makes the request that they should he taken from the Toledo payment, his Majesty orders that the sum of 25,000 ducats from this source in two instalments, is to be given to the Nuncio, and the other 25,000 ducats will be provided by him, so that the 50,000 may be sent in succour as desired. All the munitions, victuals, ships, &c., mentioned are to be on his Majesty's account.  
 
8th November 1579.

 
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« : 09/21/09 03:16:45 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
Traun

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Non sufficit orbis

   
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: 862
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« #179 : 09/20/09 19:49:28 »
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---------------------------------
 
DOCUMENT HEADED : "Reply to the Instruction brought by Diego de Cueva of Santander."  
 
The side of his Holiness is sustained by the Earl of Desmond and his brother John of Desmond, and those in their county. In the neighbourhood of Dublin the party is upheld by James Eustace and Feagh MacHugh with other influential persons. Colonel Sebastian St. Joseph and the force sent by bis Holiness are with the Earl and his brother, who have about 60 horse and 1,000 foot. James Eustace and his companions have about 60 horse and 400 foot with 100 harquebussiers. The Colonel has almost 400 foot and munitions.  
 
The affair has proceeded as follows. John of Desmond rose 15 months ago and the Earl a little over a year, since when they have sustained the war against the Queen. Eustace has been helping us for about three months. Since the Colonel came a fort is being built at Smerwick to defend the land and sea and 600 natives have been hired. These pikemen will not serve except at a wage of four gold crowns in coin, and the other soldiers a little more. They wish to be paid in advance. The whole of the population is favourable, and if they saw any strength they would all rise for the cause except the earl of Ormond, who is the leader of the English and persecutes our party, and Cormac MacTeague, who killed the Earl's third brother. If there were any reinforcement sent, there is no doubt we should succeed in the enterprise. MacCarthy More and MacMorris, vassals of the earl of Desmond, are also against us.  
 
The following things would be necessary for the success of the enterprise :  
 
6 bronze cannons.  
6 demi-cannons with all necessary apparatus.  
2 culverins, a quantity of powder, some artificial fire.  
25 bombardiers.  
8,000 footmen at least, more if possible.  
300 corselets to arm infantry.  
100 light suits of armour.  
 
Out of the 8,000 infantry, at least 2,000 should be armed with corselets, headpieces, and pikes. To arm the natives we shall require 2,000 harquebusses and morrions, 1,000 broad swords and belts, 1,000 pioneers with spades and sapping tools, 100 scaling ladders, 200 saddles with all appurtenances, 1,000 horse-shoes and a quantity of nails, 200 roundels, 100 musketoons, a quantity of bullets and much lead and fuse, a great quantity of money, for everything depends upon the money; and let it come with the greatest speed, so that we may be able to hold out until the succour arrives. Without money it is impossible to raise or muster the people of this country. A great quantity of wine also will be required, at least 200 pipes of wine as a reserve. A supply of flour up to 10,000 fanegas, of biscuits and other necessary victuals enough to keep all the troops for six months, as this land has been destroyed by the enemy. Finally every sort of stores necessary for the enterprise; oil and vinegar 50 pipes, 1,000 complete suits of clothes, jerkins, doublets, shirts, shoes and the rest, above all shoes.  
 
The principal enemy of our cause is the earl of Ormond, who has appeared before the fort with 1,800 men and 100 horse, and they say the Governor is coming with a force of the Queen's troops, and a galley is in the port, whilst seven others are expected.  
 
For the purpose of soliciting the Pope and Your Majesty for the aid they require, Friar Matthew de Oviedo is being sent with full powers and information. If all the above-mentioned supplies be sent speedily, it is hoped that the whole of this country may with the help of God be brought to submit to the holy Catholic faith. Dated in the castle of Ore, Smerwick, Wednesday, 19th October 1580.  
 
(Signed)  
 
CORNELIUS LAONENUS, Episcopus.
FR. MATEO DE OVIEDO.  
NICOLAUS SANDERUS.  
J. GERALDINE.  
JAMES OF BALTINGLAS.  
CORNELIUS LAONENUS.
BASTIAN DE SAN JOSEPH.  
ALEXANDER BERTONI.

 
« : 09/21/09 15:11:51 : Traun »

"Viel leisten, wenig hervortreten, mehr sein als scheinen, muss sich jeder Generalstaboffizier zum Wahlspruch nehmen." (c) Feldmarschall Graf von Schlieffen
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